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Toda por la Patria y el Hogar

The Politics of Female Benevolence

Image Credit:

''Mrs. Gus Garcia (seated R) plans drive for shoes with Mesdames J.J. Martinez (seated L), P.Blakely (seated C), A.H. Benavides (standing L) and F.R. Gonzales (standing R). Fund raising is planned by the Pan American League to provide shoes for school children. L-3692-A, San Antonio Light Photograph Collection, MS 359, University of Texas at San Antonio Libraries Special Collections


Davies, Darlene. “An Unshakeable Belief in Women’s Collective Efforts: Women’s Clubs as Change Makers.” Preface for Digital Exhibit, Women’s Museum of California.

Handbook of Texas Online, Leta Proctor Baughn, "WOMAN'S CLUB OF SAN ANTONIO," accessed July 28, 2020,

Handbook of Texas Online, Julie Leininger Pycior, "SOCIEDADES MUTUALISTAS," accessed July 28, 2020,

Handbook of Texas Online, Helen B. Frantz, "PAN AMERICAN ROUND TABLE," accessed July 28, 2020,

Saldaña, Hector. “Florence Terry Griswold founded international women’s organization.” San Antonio Express-News, October 26, 2017.

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